By Cunyun Ye
This is often the 1st publication on tunable exterior hollow space semiconductor diode lasers, supplying an updated survey at the physics, expertise, and function of largely acceptable coherent radiation resources of tunable exterior hollow space diode lasers. the aim is to supply a radical account of the state of the art of tunable exterior hollow space diode lasers that's completed by way of combining this account with uncomplicated strategies of semiconductor diode lasers and its tunability with monolithic constructions. the sensible and available info during this quantity will let the reader to check exterior hollow space diode laser, to accumulate the platforms of exterior hollow space diode laser in addition to to advance complex platforms for his or her specific purposes. This booklet will attract undergraduate and graduate scholars, scientists and engineers alike.
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Additional info for Tunable external cavity diode lasers
Al. (1998); Chang-Hasnain (2000)]. 1 DBR-type lasers It is possible to achieve an extended tuning range by use of a structure with multiple cavities and of a short grating as reﬂector for each cavity. Sampled grating and super-structure grating DBR lasers turn this possibility into reality. 1 41 Sampled grating DBR (SGDBR) lasers Jayaraman et al. [Jayaraman et. al. (1993)] gave the ﬁrst detailed description of widely tunable DBR lasers using sampled-grating theoretically and experimentally, they achieved the tuning range of 57 nm limited by the beat period.
As shown in Fig. 10, the wide tuning range in this case is due to the enhanced tuning of the ﬁlter peak in a GACC, which is placed in the center of the VCF laser [Kim et. al. (1994)]. This enhanced tuning derives from the fact that the center frequency tunes as the index change in one guide relative to the diﬀerence in modal indexes between the two guides, rather than relative to the starting index, as in grating mirror or other phase shifting elements [Chuang and Coldren (1993)]. Thus, the tuning enhancement factor is given by F = n1g /(n1g − n2g ), the index of the tunable guide divided by the diﬀerence in modal group indexes.
R is usually of the order of 20 ∼ 80 µm. 29) that for gain-guided lasers, D≈R, whereas for index-guided lasers, D R. The question of which value of D are tolerable depends strongly on the numerical aperture used, and hence on the type of applications. 4 Spectral contents The basic spectral characteristics of semiconductor diode laser with free running (solitary laser) have been studied in the last sections. As a last section in this chapter, we are going to examine the spectral contents of diode laser.