The Circulatory System, the Skin, and the Cutaneous Organs by Dr. med. vet. August Schummer, Dr. med. vet. Helmut Wilkens,

By Dr. med. vet. August Schummer, Dr. med. vet. Helmut Wilkens, Dr. med. vet. Bernd Vollmerhaus, Dr. med. vet. Karl-Heinz Habermehl (auth.)

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Sample text

In all domestic mammals the base of the heart lies at the level of an imaginary Fig. 5. position of the heart in a formalin-preserved dog in the erect posture. ; k apex cordis, l contour of the diaphragm 1 truncus pulmonalis; 2 arcus aortae; 3 aorta thoracica with aa. ; 4 v. ; 5 v. ; 6 a. , 6' vv. pulmonales; 7 lig arteriosum (Botalli); 8 a. , 9 a. brachiocephalica; 10 a. , 11 a. carotis comm. ; 12 a. carotis comm. ; 13 a. vertebralis; 14 v. jugularis ext. ; 15 a. and v. ; 15 ' a. and v. thoracica int.

These cells lie on a lamina propria, the fibres of which are mainly collagenous and are so orientated that they can follow changes in shape and form undergone by the heart. Below this lamina lies the subepicaridallayer consisting of collagen and elastic fibres continuous with the interstitial framework of the heart musculature. The large blood and lymph vessels and nerves are situated in this layer; it also contains, especially in the coronary and interventricular sinuses, deposits of adipose tissue.

From here it is passed to the systemic and placentar circulation together with the blood which enters the left heart through the foramen ovale. Only a small amount of blood, necessary to nourish the organ, passes from the pulmonary trunk through the pulmonary artery into the lung. As the lung unfolds after birth, the route is opened for the blood to enter the pulmonary circulation. At the same time the pressure in the two atria is equalised so that, as well as from the closure of the foramen ovale, there is an obliteration of the vascular bridge between aorta and pulmonary trunk.

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