By Ralph K. Iler
Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena Milton J. Rosen Bridging the distance among in simple terms theoretical features of floor chemistry and the merely empirical adventure of the commercial technologist, this booklet applies theoretical floor chemistry to figuring out the motion of surfactants in enhancing interfacial phenomena. It surveys the structural kinds of commercially on hand surfactants and discusses interfacial phenomena, the physicochemical ideas underlying the motion of surfactants in each one phenomenon, and the influence of structural alterations within the surfactants and environmental alterations on their motion. Tables of knowledge on quite a few interfacial houses of surfactants, compiled and calculated from the newest medical literature, are incorporated. 1978 304 pp. An creation to Clay Colloid Chemistry, second Ed. H. van Olphen This e-book offers priceless tips in study and layout efforts through giving a transparent figuring out of rules and ideas of colloid chemistry as utilized to clay structures. up to date and enlarged, this version contains new details on floor characterization and adsorption mechanisms; fresh leads to the world of clay-organic interaction--the intercalation and intersalation of kaolinite minerals; and elevated cognizance to the potential function of clays in organic evolution. 1977 318 pp. Physicochemical approaches for Water qc Walter J. Weber, Jr. concentrating on physicochemical instead of organic methods, this ebook provides a complete treatise at the therapy of municipal and business water and wastewater. the entire physicochemical methods vital to municipal and business water and wastewater treatment--coagulation, filtration, membrane tactics, chemical oxidation, and others--are integrated and every is roofed completely from precept via program. to take care of a excessive point of craftsmanship, contributions were included from experts actively considering examine or engineering functions in each one region thought of. 1972 640 pp.
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Extra info for The chemistry of silica : solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry
Instead, it must decompose rapidly in water to give monosilicic acid. When the powder is suspended in water and within 2 min centrifuged to obtain a clear solution. 5 (thymolphthalein). 2 equivalents of base are required per mole of Si0 2 in solution (66). 1 equivalent is required .. Initially. therefore, the solution must have been supersaturated with Si(OH)4, which when titrated with base, requires 2 equivalents of alkali. but after the monomer has polymerized. much less alkali is required to neutralize the surface acidity of the colloid.
HO)3SiOSi(OHh. Astrand (27) found that volatility increased with decreasing alkalinity in experiments conducted up to 350°C and 300 atm. This. of course. suggests that Si(OH). is more volatile than the silicate ion. Wendlandt and Glemser (28) reviewed evidence from earlier workers and calculated the equilibrium constants involved whence the species in the vapor were related to the density of the water vapor: I . , : : I I .. I. I Quartz Gas Density Range (g em -3) Si0 2 + 2 H20 == Si(OH). 65 Similarly.
Fixed area of silica surface is more plausible if it can be assumed that the removal of one layer, by coincidence. 5 mole of water per silicon atom. If this is so. no formation of water by condensation of SiOH groups is involved, and the above relation to Greenberg's data is only a coincidence. as is discussed in Chapter 3, it is Based on what is now known of - this system. , likely that the sol made by hydrolyzing. ethyl silicate contains polysilicic acid or silica particles that are so small that a substantial fraction of the silicon atoms are at the surface of the particles and bear OH groups.