Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals (2nd Edition) by Jonathan Kingdon

By Jonathan Kingdon

It is a entire consultant to the mammal fauna of Africa. masking all identified species (more than 1,100 in total), this consultant will let identity of all greater land mammals prone to be noticeable wherever in Africa. special debts, with color illustrations, are supplied for many species, yet a few advanced small mammal teams are summarised by means of genera. the color illustrations express either sexes in sexually dimorphic species, and there also are a wealth of line drawings illustrating normal behaviours, the functionality of camouflaged or disruptive markings and the main points of interspecific version between heavily allied species. Distribution maps express the levels of so much species lined.

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Physical contacts with fellow elephants and with the environment became focused on the head: the trunk handled food and gentler forms of social contact; tusks became both tools and weapons of defence used in ritualised fighting with their own species. Elephants fossilise well, so an ever-more detailed picture of later elephant evolution continues to unfold from a wealth of fossils (the earlier stages are less well documented). Before 65 mya elephants had shared a common ancestry with hyraxes. Early elephants and early sea-cows began as wallowing herbivorous cousins but one remained terrestrial while the other became wholly aquatic.

This corridor is essentially a rain-shadow behind a long (and once very high) chain of uplands stretching from the Taita hills in Kenya through the ‘Eastern Arc’ and Malawi Rift mountains to the Kalahari and Namib drylands. These uplands intercept moisture blown in off the Indian Ocean, causing the land lying in their western lee, their ‘shadow’, to suffer desiccation. The barrier effect of this rain-shadow has been most decisive for moisturedependent biota at tropical latitudes and during glacial periods.

They utter sustained 5-minute bouts OTHER NAMES Yellow-spotted HYRAXES 53 Sketches of Bush Hyrax. Note the erectile fur tract above the dorsal gland. of loud calls, a whining croak that is much less resonant and deep than that of other hyraxes. Their very bird-like alarm whistle alerts other species, including rock hyraxes and Klipspringers. They flag their heads with a pronounced shiver. ADAPTATIONS The Bush Hyrax appears to illustrate the earliest steps in the colonisation of trees by an animal apparently ill-equipped to do so.

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