Genes, Women, Equality by Mary Briody Mahowald

By Mary Briody Mahowald

Genetics isn't gender impartial in its effect. Mahowald cites quite a lot of organic and psychosocial examples that show its diversified effect on women and men, specifically with reference to copy and caregiving. She examines the level to which those ameliorations are linked to gender injustice, arguing for positions that lessen inequality among the sexes. The serious point of view Mahowald brings to this research is an egalitarian interpretation of feminism that calls for recognition to inequalities coming up from racism, ethnocentricism, albleism, and classism in addition to sexism. Eschewing a suggestion of equality as sameness, Mahowald defines equality as attribution of an identical price to assorted items. Gender justice, she claims, imputes an analogous worth to women and men, regardless of their adjustments. it will possibly in simple terms be maximized by way of useful efforts to equalize the burdens and advantages linked to genetics. the themes thought of contain participation in examine, allocation of genetic prone, cultural distinction, intercourse choice, misattributed paternity, prenatal and preimplantation prognosis, provider trying out, genetic interventions, genetic disabilities, personal tastes for genetic ties to offspring, genetic susceptibility to overdue onset problems, behavioral genetics, genetic discrimination in employment and coverage, and human cloning. situations, either actual and concocted, are used to demonstrate the questions addressed.

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Hartsock draws on psychoanalytic theory in developing this critique. 25. Haraway, p. 581. 26. Haraway, p. 581. 27. Haraway, p. 584. 28. Haraway, p. 584. 29. John Ladd, "The Ethics of Participation," in J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman, Participation in Politics Nomos 16 (New York: Lieber-Atherton, 1975), p. 101. Ladd imputes this view to Kurt Baier in The Moral Point of View (New York: Random House, 1965), p. 107. 30. Ladd, p. 102. 31. Ladd, p. 103. 32. Ladd, p. 103. 33. , one based on the inalienable right of persons to participate in the development of social policies that affect them.

377. 46. , Philosophy of Woman (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1992), p. 82. 47. Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998), p. 7. 48. Linda J. , Feminism/Postmodernism (New York: Routledge, 1990), is an excellent collection of articles on postmodern feminism. 49. For example, while most women and men are chromosomally defined as XX and XY, respectively, some are XO, XXX, XXY, or XYY. Moreover, gender identity and sex identity (as defined by chromosomes) may be different in the same individual.

47 In other words, the very otherness of women, both as individuals and as a group, introduces a potential for change and difference that justifies the privileged status of their standpoints. Through its link with deconstruction, postmodern feminism is anti-essentialist. 49 Whereas categorizations may be inevitable and useful, rigid distinctions and dichotomies tend to be stereotypic A Feminist Standpoint tor Genetics 23 and artificial, betraying the complexity of real individuals and adequate accounts of them.

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