Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Volume 1 by Scott A. Huettel, Allen W. Song, Gregory McCarthy

By Scott A. Huettel, Allen W. Song, Gregory McCarthy

This textbook offers a real creation to practical magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has develop into the dominant learn approach in cognitive neuroscience. even if there's remarkable curiosity in fMRI between researchers and teachers alike, difficulties have hampered the learn of this method. First, latest texts are distinct towards practising scientists within the box and think a degree of craftsmanship no longer possessed by means of such a lot scholars. moment, such a lot scholars should not have entry to fMRI apparatus and information, in order that they haven't any chance to realize arms on adventure. This textbook overcomes those barriers by means of providing a accomplished assessment of all features of fMRI, designed with undergraduate scholars, graduate scholars and starting researchers in brain. The authors' aim was once to create a booklet that's sufficiently scientifically rigorous for scientists within the box, but in addition obtainable adequate to be simply learn and understood via starting scholars. The e-book can be utilized because the basic textual content for sessions in fMRI, or as a secondary textual content for cognitive neuroscience, learn tools or different classes.

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The second system is responsible for controlling the experiment in which the subject participates and for recording behavioral and physiological data (shown in green). There are, in general, t w o criteria for a suitable magnetic field in MRI. The first is uniformity (or homogeneity), and the second is strength. U n i f o r m i t y is necessary in that we want to create images of the body that do not depend on which MRI scanner we are using or h o w the body is positioned in the field. If the magnetic field were inhomogeneous, the signal measured from a given part of the body w o u l d depend upon where it was located in the magnetic field.

The radiofrequency coils send electromagnetic waves that resonate at a particular frequency, as determined by the strength of the magnetic field, into the body, perturbing this e q u i l i b r i u m state. This process is k n o w n as excitation. When atomic nuclei are excited, they absorb the energy of the radiofrequency pulse. But, when the radiofrequency pulse ends, the hydrogen nuclei return to the e q u i l i b r i u m state and release the energy that was absorbed during excitation. The resulting release of energy can be detected by the radiofrequency coils, in a process k n o w n as reception.

Magnetic fields were discovered in naturally occurring rocks, k n o w n as lodestones, by ancient Chinese almost 2000 years ago. 1 Examples of MRI scanners. , central tube). Shown in (A) is a Signa series scanner from General Electric, and in (B) is a MAGNETOM Avanto scanner from Siemens. A small fraction of scanners use a more open design, such as FONAR's 360 Open Sky scanner, shown in (C). In an open scanner, the subject does not have to go into a tube, so the chance of a claustrophobic reaction is reduced.

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