By Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage
This publication describes and illustrates French fortifications from 1715 (the dying of Louis XIV) to 1815 (the fall of Napoleon), focusing quite at the Napoleonic period. After an historic heritage, it covers the history of the Ancien Regime with the $64000 contributions of Vauban (the bastioned defense), Gribeauval's reforms in artillery, and Montalembert's ideas. Chapters discover the fashion of Napoleonic fortifications, siege battle, artillery and engineering corps, in addition to the Napoleonic achievements in France, Italy, German and the Netherlands, together with tasks that have been deliberate yet by no means accomplished. integrated are approximately 250 line drawings of ancient fortifications.
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Extra info for French Fortifications, 1715-1815: An Illustrated History
Of an acute but cynical realism, he therefore sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime by negotiating, after protracted bargaining, the Concordat of July 1801 with Pope Pius VII (Count Barnaba Niccolo Chiaramonti, born in 1740, pope from 1800 to his death in 1823). The Concordat, which regulated public worship in France, and the relations between the French state and the papacy, was a dramatic gesture of reconciliation and appeasement, which satisﬁed the French clergy and gained Napoléon a large popular support.
The illustration shows the French corvette Aurore, built in 1767. The light and fast, one-decked, three-mast corvette (the British sloop) was a class of warship under the frigate serving for patrolling, reconnaissance, and attacking, as well as escorting and protecting commerce and cargo vessels. It carried 18 to 20 guns, and was operated by a relatively small crew. The Arc de Triomphe at Étoile Square The Arc de Triomphe, the most prestigious symbol of Napoléon’s grandeur, stands in the center of the Place Charles de Gaulle, also known as the Place de l’Étoile in Paris, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées.
THE CAMPAIGN OF RUSSIA By 1811 the bright sunlight of Austerlitz was beginning to fade. Tensions were building up between France and Russia, as both countries remained rivals on the continent. ” In order to perpetuate a Napoleonic Europe, it was essential to reduce Russia’s power, and the entente agreed at Tilsit and Erfurt in 1808 was only a temporary truce concluded to win time and consolidate positions. Czar Alexander was under strong pressure from the Russian nobility and military staff to break off the alliance.