Food, Farming, and Hunting (American Indian Contributions to by Emory Dean Keoke

By Emory Dean Keoke

By the point ecu conquistadores and colonizers arrived within the Americas, beginning in 1492, American Indians had already invented refined looking and fishing expertise. They accrued 1000s of vegetation for nutrition, fiber, and drugs, and primary domesticated three-quarters of the meals plants raised on the planet at the present time. foodstuff, Farming, and looking covers the numerous contributions that American Indians have made all through heritage, together with a number of the instruments utilized in looking, corresponding to bolas, bows and arrows, and camouflage, and the several tools of fishing for every tradition. the amount identifies the numerous meals North American, Mesoamerican, and South American Indians accumulated, discusses the start of agriculture within the Americas, and describes the crops that have been ultimately domesticated and farmed. Later advancements and enhancements in farming, resembling irrigation and using fertilizer, also are lined.

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The ashes that remained after the fire reduced soil acidity. Burning also added magnesium, calcium, potash, and phosphorus to the soil. Proper balance of these minerals is important to plant growth. In addition, burning increased nitrogen in the soil. Nitrogen is necessary to grow healthy bean plants. Rather than planting the newly cleared plots of land right away, most farmers waited a year or two before growing crops on them. American Indians understood that the nutrients in the earth were used up by constant planting, so after two or three seasons of growing crops on one field, they cleared new fields.

American Indians understood that the nutrients in the earth were used up by constant planting, so after two or three seasons of growing crops on one field, they cleared new fields. In the Northeast, Huron farmers’ fields typically yielded about 25 to 30 bushels of corn an acre. When yields dropped to a third of that, they cleared new plots. Every 10 to 12 years they relocated their villages. In Mesoamerica, Maya farmers let their fields lie unused from 15 to 40 years before using them again. Europeans, eager to use the fields that the Indians had cleared, drove them from their farms, permanently relocating them to land that in many cases was unsuitable for farming.

A field this size provided half the food needed by 10 people for six months. By about 4,000 years ago American Indians living in the river valleys of what are now Tennessee, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Missouri, and Alabama had also domesticated squash and bottle gourds. D. D. 800. HOW THE FIRST FARMERS GREW CROPS Before they could harvest crops, American Indian farmers needed to clear the land, till the soil, and plant seeds. Clearing the Land Indian farmers chose land where few large trees grew.

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