Field guide to geometrical optics by John E. Greivenkamp

By John E. Greivenkamp

This box consultant derives from the therapy of geometrical optics that has developed from either the undergraduate and graduate courses on the Optical Sciences heart on the collage of Arizona. the advance is either rigorous and whole, and it includes a constant notation and signal conference. This quantity covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical approach layout, approach examples, illumination, chromatic results, and an creation to aberrations. The appendices supply supplemental fabric on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several themes

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Unvignetted: a≥ y + y The maximum FOV supported by the system occurs when an aperture completely blocks the ray bundle from the object point. Fully vignetted: a≤ y – y and a≥ y The second vignetting condition ensures that the aperture passes the marginal ray and is not the system stop. By definition, vignetting cannot occur at the aperture stop or at a pupil. org/terms 3DUWB&IP 3DJH  0RQGD\ -DQXDU\    30 32 Geometrical Optics More Vignetting A third vignetting condition is defined when an aperture passes about half of the ray bundle from an object point.

Z′ z′ fOBJ mR = ----RMP = mR MPK = – ----R- --------zR zR fEYE Multiple relay lenses can be used to transfer the image over a long distance. Examples include periscopes, endoscopes and borescopes. Field lenses can also be added at the intermediate images. A common arrangement is for each field lens to image the pupil into the following relay lens. All of the light collected by the objective is transferred down the optical system. The final field lens is part of the eyepiece. The functions of a field lens and a relay lens can be combined into a single erector lens.

Fm Page 55 Wednesday, December 17, 2003 4:58 PM Optical Systems 55 Illumination Systems A projector is the general term for an imaging system that also provides the illumination for the object. There are three basic classifications of illumination systems: • Diffuse illumination – light with a large angular spread is incident on the object. This description would also include ambient or natural lighting conditions. There is no attempt to image the source into the imaging system. This type of system is simple and provides uniform illumination, but it is light inefficient.

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