By Bernard C. Kress
Conventional macro-optics could be designed with no complicated layout software program instruments. notwithstanding, electronic optics, specially wafer-scale micro-optics, require particular software program and instruments. there's usually no analytical resolution, and hence complicated iterative optimization algorithms will be required. This booklet covers refractive and diffractive micro-optics, the iterative optimization approach, and modeling and fabrication strategies an important to this box. the power to create hybrid platforms able to generating analog and electronic performance can be addressed
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Extra info for Field guide to digital micro-optics
This figure depicts 2 3 1 the most-common 1 2 3 reflective grating: a blazed grating. Depending on the blaze angle and opposite sidewall Reflective angle, this grating blazed grating can also be also considered to be an echelette grating. ml ¼ Dðsina þ sinbÞ Grating equation: Angular dispersion D of a reflective grating: D¼ @b m sina þ sinb ¼ ¼ @l Lcosb lcosb where L is the period of the grating, m is the considered diffraction order (a function of the depth of the grooves), a is the incoming angle, b is the diffracted/reflected angle, and l is the reconstruction wavelength.
However, any aberration of such a lens will change the geometry of the original far-field pattern (for example, offaxis beams will yield field curvature and coma when using a spherical lens as a Fourier lens). Field Guide to Digital Micro-Optics Diffractive Micro-Optics 23 Fourier and Fresnel Diffractive Optics Diffraction through a Fourier element A linear grating (periodic structures) produces sets of symmetric diffraction spots (with various efficiencies depending on the grating structures) visible in the far field.
It is thus wise to choose wavelengths that are wider apart to yield groove depths that are easier to fabricate (litho/etching or diamond turning). Such elements are also referred to as harmonic lenses because they produce a 2pperiod phase shift for multiple wavelengths. Field Guide to Digital Micro-Optics Diffractive Micro-Optics 35 Broadband Diffractives A diffractive lens might be used over more than a single wavelength with high efficiency. Although it is possible to design and fabricate diffractives that yield high efficiency over multiple wavelengths, it is difficult to do so and achieve a uniform efficiency over a wide spectral band, such as the visible.