Fiber optics handbook: fiber, devices, and systems for by Michael Bass, Eric W. Van Stryland, Optical Society of

By Michael Bass, Eric W. Van Stryland, Optical Society of America

Fiber optics is the most popular subject in communications and this e-book from the world's top specialists essentially lays out all of the info of optical communications engineering * crucial technical advisor and suggestions package for the super-fast, super-broad fiber structures and units powering the fastest-growing communications infrastructure * equipment for producing above top functionality * transparent factors and solutions to difficult demanding situations for WDM, DWDM, amplifiers, solitons, and different key applied sciences

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Figure 14a shows a multipass optoelectronic scheme, in which an optoelectronic oscillator circuit is set up with the fiber as a delay loop. The Q of the optoelectronic oscillator determines the effective number of passes in this measurement of optical delay. Finally, one can use an all-optical circuit in which the test fiber is placed in a fiber loop with weak optical taps to a laser and detector/signal processor (Fig. 14b). This “ring resonator” arrangement can also be set up with a fiber amplifier in the resonator to form the all-optical analog of the multipass optoelectronic scheme of Fig.

The sensitivity of PSK to source phase noise generally precludes higher-level signaling. Multilevel FSK, being a bandwidth expansion technique, offers a receiver sensitivity improvement over binary FSK without placing severe constraints on the source. Table 4 gives expressions for the receiver error probability as a function of received power for each modulation technique. The right-hand column gives, for comparison purposes, the number of photons required per pulse to assure an error rate of better than 10−9.

Actual fibers will often exhibit slope discontinuities, indicating a change in the dominant failure mechanism. 36 The first applications were primarily digital, since source nonlinearities precluded multichannel analog applications. Early links were designed for the 800- to 900-nm window of the optical fiber transmission spectrum, consistent with the emission wavelengths of the GaAs-AlGaAs materials system for semiconductor lasers and LEDs. 55-µm window (for minimum loss). 55 µm as the wavelength of choice for high-speed communications.

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