By Kenichi Iga, Yasuo Kokubun
As optical applied sciences stream toward the center of recent machine structure, there come up many demanding situations in construction optical services from the community to the motherboard. quick advances in built-in optics applied sciences are making this a truth. although, no finished, up to date reference is out there to the applied sciences and ideas underlying the sphere. The Encyclopedic instruction manual of built-in Optics fills this void, accumulating the paintings of fifty three prime specialists right into a compilation of crucial techniques, phenomena, applied sciences, and phrases masking all similar fields. This distinctive e-book comprises sorts of entries: the 1st is an in depth, full-length description; the opposite, a concise review of the subject. also, the insurance may be divided into 4 wide parts:
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Extra info for Encyclopedic handbook of integrated optics
The spacing between them is called the free spectral range (FSR). fm Page 19 Wednesday, September 21, 2005 4:48 PM ARRAYED WAVEGUIDE GRATING (a) 19 Arrayed waveguides Output slab Output waveguide Focal point (b) Wavefront Focal point Phase shift Figure 2 Interference in output slab waveguide (a) when λ = center wavelength (b) when λ = center wavelength + ∆λ P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 Insertion loss (dB) P2 PN FSR NX AX P1+FSR 3 dB P1 l1 l2 l3 l4 l5 Figure 3 lN l6 l7 l8 Wavelength Insertion loss spectra of AWG multi/demultiplexer and definitions for WDM is limited to the FSR.
Figure 3(b) shows calculated Leff as a function of the DBR length for various coupling strength κ LB. LASING CONDITIONS OF DBR LASER Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of a DBR laser consisting of active and DBR regions on both sides coupled to each other via a certain waveguide coupling method. The DBR structure is similar to a conventional Fabry-Perot type laser; except that it has DBR regions at both ends of the active waveguide instead of cleaved facets. The DBR regions consist of low-loss optical waveguides with corrugations (grating) on or beneath the waveguides, which are made of compound crystals with an energy gap wider than that of the active layer.
4 dB. At present, almost all commercial AWG multi/demultiplexers are made of silica waveguides. InP-based waveguides are also used for the monolithic integration of AWG multi/ demultiplexers with laser diodes and photo diodes . This technology has the potential to provide us with one-chip WDM transmitters and receivers . FUNDAMENTALS OF AWG Figure 1 shows the waveguide layout of the AWG multi/demultiplexer, which is the same as that of a conventional spectrometer. ,l8 . . . fm Page 18 Wednesday, September 21, 2005 4:48 PM 18 ARRAYED WAVEGUIDE GRATING as a lens and the AWG acts as a diffraction grating.