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Extra resources for Diffusion in Condensed Matter - Methods, Materials, Models
If the quantities D intrinsic diﬀusion coeﬃcients can be deduced. We emphasize that the intrinsic diﬀusion coeﬃcients and the tracer diﬀusion coeﬃcients are diﬀerent. DA and DB pertain to diﬀusion in a composition A∗ B∗ gradient whereas DAB and DAB are determined in a homogenous alloy. They are approximately related (see Sect. 19) where Φ denotes the so-called thermodynamic factor (see Sect. 11). In a metal-hydrogen system ususally only the H atoms are mobile. Then the intrinsic diﬀusion coeﬃcient and the chemical diﬀusion coeﬃcient of hydrogen are identical.
The analysis of interdiﬀusion proﬁles is discussed in Sect. 11. 3. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) AES in combination with sputter proﬁling can be used to measure diffusion proﬁles in the range of several nm to several µm. It is, however, only applicable to diﬀusion of foreign atoms since AES only discriminates between diﬀerent elements. 4. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) In RBS experiments a high-energy beam of monoenergetic α-particles is used. These particles are preferentially scattered by heavy nuclei in the sample and the energy spectrum of scattered α-particles can be used to determine the concentration-depth distribution of scattering nuclei.
2). Isotope eﬀects of self- and solute-diﬀusion in metals can contribute useful information about the atomic mechanisms of diﬀusion. For a detailed discussion the reader is referred to [22– 24] (see also Chap. 6, Sect. 3). Other Proﬁling and Detection Methods Several other proﬁling and detection methods can be used to measure concentration-depth proﬁles. We mention the more important ones: 1. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) As already mentioned foreign elements or stable isotopes of the matrix can be used as tracers in combination with SIMS for depth proﬁling.