Diffusion in Condensed Matter - Methods, Materials, Models by NA


Diffusion because the means of particle shipping as a result of stochastic circulation is a phenomenon of the most important relevance for a wide number of tactics and fabrics. This entire, handbook-style survey of diffusion in condensed topic supplies precise perception into diffusion because the strategy of particle delivery because of stochastic circulation. best specialists within the box describe in 23 chapters the various features of diffusion, masking microscopic and macroscopic experimental ideas and exemplary effects for varied periods of solids, beverages and interfaces in addition to numerous theoretical innovations and types. scholars and scientists in physics, chemistry, fabrics technological know-how, and biology will reap the benefits of this special compilation.

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If the quantities D intrinsic diffusion coefficients can be deduced. We emphasize that the intrinsic diffusion coefficients and the tracer diffusion coefficients are different. DA and DB pertain to diffusion in a composition A∗ B∗ gradient whereas DAB and DAB are determined in a homogenous alloy. They are approximately related (see Sect. 19) where Φ denotes the so-called thermodynamic factor (see Sect. 11). In a metal-hydrogen system ususally only the H atoms are mobile. Then the intrinsic diffusion coefficient and the chemical diffusion coefficient of hydrogen are identical.

The analysis of interdiffusion profiles is discussed in Sect. 11. 3. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) AES in combination with sputter profiling can be used to measure diffusion profiles in the range of several nm to several µm. It is, however, only applicable to diffusion of foreign atoms since AES only discriminates between different elements. 4. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) In RBS experiments a high-energy beam of monoenergetic α-particles is used. These particles are preferentially scattered by heavy nuclei in the sample and the energy spectrum of scattered α-particles can be used to determine the concentration-depth distribution of scattering nuclei.

2). Isotope effects of self- and solute-diffusion in metals can contribute useful information about the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For a detailed discussion the reader is referred to [22– 24] (see also Chap. 6, Sect. 3). Other Profiling and Detection Methods Several other profiling and detection methods can be used to measure concentration-depth profiles. We mention the more important ones: 1. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) As already mentioned foreign elements or stable isotopes of the matrix can be used as tracers in combination with SIMS for depth profiling.

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