By Pieter Walstra; et al
Describes the effective transformation of milk right into a number of items, concentrating on the alterations in uncooked fabric, and intermediate and ultimate items. The booklet info the techniques for making sure processing potency and product caliber. content material: Milk -- Composition, constitution, and homes -- Milk parts -- Colloidal debris of milk -- Microbiology of milk -- approaches -- common features -- warmth remedy -- Centrifugation -- Homogenization -- focus strategy -- Cooling and freezing -- Lactic fermentations -- Fouling, cleansing and disinfection -- Packing -- Milk items -- Milk for liquid intake -- Cream items -- targeted milks -- Milk powder -- Protein arrangements -- Butter -- Fermented milks -- Cheese -- rules of cheese making -- approach steps -- Cheese ripening and homes -- Microbial defects -- Cheese kinds. summary: Describes the effective transformation of milk right into a number of items, concentrating on the adjustments in uncooked fabric, and intermediate and ultimate items. The booklet info the approaches for making sure processing potency and product caliber
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The size of the fat globules) varies. 4 may cause a certain variability. In a qualitative sense, cows’ milk is fairly constant in composition. The following are the main factors affecting composition and properties of milk. a. Species, breed, and individual—in other words, genetic factors. 1 It may be advisable to study this section after reading Chapters 2 to 4. 14 Chapter 1 b. , physiological factors. c. Illness of the cow, mastitis in particular. d. , environmental factors. Furthermore, various extraneous components can enter milk via the cow or after milking.
From H. Mulder and P. Walstra, The Milk Fat Globule (Wageningen: Pudoc, 1974). they have an electrostatic charge, being negative at the pH of milk. Their total surface area is large. Fat globules. To a certain extent, milk is an oil-in-water emulsion. But the fat globules are more complicated than emulsion droplets. Especially the surface layer or membrane of the fat globule is not an adsorption layer of one single substance, but consists of many components; its structure is complicated. The mass of the membrane is about 2% of that of the fat.
But in most fresh milk the titratable acidity ranges from 14 to 21, average about 17°N. It tends to be high at the onset of lactation, say, 3°N above the later level. 7 at 20°C. 25 µmol ⋅ LϪ1. Titratable acidity and pH exhibit a weak correlation. 2 Titration curves and buffering capacity of milk, sweet whey, and milk ultraﬁltrate, all expressed in mEq ⋅ LϪ1. Approximate averages. From P. Walstra and R. Jenness, Dairy Chemistry and Physics (New York: Wiley, 1984). Composition, Structure, and Properties 11 acid production starts, the titratable acidity increases proportionally, whereas the pH decreases (Fig.