By Hull A. W.
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Extra info for Control of an Arc Discharge by Means of a Grid
E. across the beam, and also along the beam axis. The light intensity distribution across the beam cross-section anywhere along z is Gaussian. The beam diameter 2w at any point z is defined in such a way that the cross sectional area πw2 at that point contains 85% of the beam power. Thus the beam diameter 2w increases as the beam travels along z. A Gaussian beam starts with a finite width 2wo where the wavefronts are parallel and then the beam slowly diverges as the wavefronts curve out during propagation along z.
The first reason is that the active layers have different doping levels. Second is the self-absorption of some of the photons guided along the active layer as in ELED. Typically the linewidth of the output spectrum from an ELED is less than that from a SLED. In set of experiments, for example, an InGaAsP ELED operating near 1300 nm was observed to have a linewidth of 75 nm whereas the corresponding SLED had a linewidth of 125 nm. 35 eV, Cladding/Substrate) Electrode 2 1 Current paths Substrate 3 200-300 m Cleaved reflecting surface Active region (emission region) Light beam Schematic illustration of the the structure of a double heterojunction stripe contact edge emitting LED Lens ELED GRIN-rod lens Multimode fiber Single mode fiber ELED Active layer (a) (b) Light from an edge emitting LED is coupled into a fiber typically by using a lens or a GRIN rod lens.
Below the glass transition temperature, the viscosity of the structure is so great that over the time scale of observation there is no significant flow (one may, of course, argue that over thousands of years there may be indeed be a noticeable flow but this will not change our general view of the substance in our lifetime). Any shearing stress below Tg results in an elastic response due to the stretching of bonds, and on removal of the stress the glass returns to its original shape. This is a typical solid-like behavior and for all practical purposes we view the structure below Tg as that of a solid.