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Extra resources for Computing Radiation Dosimetry: Crd 2002 (Nuclear Science)
50 Figure 14. Ranges of electrons as a function of energy E in water (——) continuous-slowed-down range Rcsda, (− • −) projected range Rp, (——) 50% range R50 Another aspect of electron degradation is the spectral energy distribution of the primary particle and of all of its secondaries as a function of the electron penetration depth through matter. For its discussion, let us assume an electron source in a vacuum, which emits continuously with time monoenergetic electrons in a direction perpendicular to the front face of a water phantom.
The photons are scattered elastically by Rayleigh scattering or inelastically by Compton scattering, transferring part of their initial energy to secondary electrons, or they are absorbed by the photoelectric effect and leave the greater part of their energy also to electrons. The main information that could be extracted from the figure is that, during photon slow-down in matter, a great number of secondary electrons is set in motion whose starting points are distributed over the whole volume of the water cylinder, due to a large mean free interaction length of photons and to their strong angular scattering.
Figure 7 presents the results for ∆n/∆T′ (per primary photon of initial energy T) as a function of photon energy T′ for the four selected primary energies of T = 10 keV, 100 keV, 1 MeV and 10 MeV . Apart from the occurrence of annihilation quanta of 511 keV in the case of T = 10 MeV, it can be seen at a glance that the spectral photon distributions related to the three higher primary energies nearly coincide in their overlapping energy regions, thus demonstrating a rather similar photon degradation process.