By editor-in-chief, Charlene A. McQueen
In additional than a decade because the booklet of the 1st variation of entire Toxicology, an explosive elevate within the wisdom of the consequences of chemical and actual brokers on organic platforms has ended in an elevated figuring out of standard mobile services and the implications in their perturbations. Revised and up-to-date to mirror new advances in toxicology examine and together with content material by means of a few of the best researchers within the box, the 14-volume moment version of complete Toxicology is still the optimum source for toxicologists in academia, drugs, and firms. instead of giving an alphabetical directory of compounds, finished Toxicology moment version offers a special organ-systems constitution that permits the person to discover the poisonous results of varied elements on each one human procedure, assisting in supplying diagnoses and proving crucial in events the place the poisonous substance is unknown yet its results on a process are seen. entire Toxicology moment version is the main whole and priceless toxicology paintings to be had to researchers at the present time. Contents up to date and revised to mirror advancements in toxicology researchOrganized with a different organ-system approachFeatures complete colour throughoutAvailable electronically on sciencedirect.com, in addition to in a limited-edition print model
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Additional info for Comprehensive Toxicology - Fourteen-Volume Set electronic resource
General fertility and reproductive performance (segment I or phase I) tests are usually done in rats, with two or three doses (20 rats per sex per dose) of the test chemical. If three doses are used, the highest dose may show some evidence of maternal toxicity, but neither of the lower two doses should produce any evidence of maternal toxicity. Males are given the chemical 60 days and females 14 days prior to mating, and for the females this is continued throughout gestation and lactation. Typical observations made are the percentage of the females that become pregnant, the number of stillborn and live offspring, and the weight, growth, survival, and general condition of the offspring during the first 3 weeks following birth.
6 Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Four types of animal tests are utilized to examine the potential of a chemical to affect development and/or reproduction. General fertility and reproductive performance (segment I or phase I) tests are usually done in rats, with two or three doses (20 rats per sex per dose) of the test chemical. If three doses are used, the highest dose may show some evidence of maternal toxicity, but neither of the lower two doses should produce any evidence of maternal toxicity.
This epoxide is highly electrophilic and will react quickly with nucleophilic sites in the cell. One such site is the nitrogen in position 7 of the DNA base, guanine. Thus, one consequence of aflatoxin exposure will be the formation of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts in DNA (Eaton and Groopman 1994). (Figure 8). Since this adduct is bulky, it will change the shape of the double-stranded DNA molecule, which may lead to mispairing of bases on the strand or to errors in DNA replication, typically base pair substitutions.