By Markus Graf, Diego Barrettino, Henry P. Baltes, Andreas Hierlemann
The booklet "CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors" offers a complete therapy of the interdisciplinary box of CMOS technology-based chemical microsensor platforms, and, specifically, of microhotplate-based structures. The ebook is, at the one hand, special at scientists and engineers which are attracted to getting first insights within the box of microhotplates and comparable chemical sensing, given that all helpful basic wisdom is incorporated. nevertheless, it additionally addresses specialists within the box because it offers specified info on all very important concerns concerning understanding microhotplates and, in particular, microhotplate-based chemical sensors in CMOS technology.A huge variety of microhotplate realizations and integrated-sensor-system implementations illustrate the present state-of-the-art and, even as, provide an effect of the long run power of chemical microsensors in CMOS expertise. because microsensors produce "microsignals", sensor miniaturization with no sensor integration is, in lots of circumstances, liable to failure. This publication may also help to bare some great benefits of utilizing built-in electronics and CMOS-technology for constructing microhotplates and the corresponding chemical microsensor structures and, particularly, the benefits that end result from knowing monolithically built-in sensor structures comprising transducers and linked circuitry on a unmarried chip.
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Additional info for CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors
C µm at C in the active area was achieved (see Sect. 4 and ). Another possibility to improve the temperature homogeneity is to introduce an additional polysilicon plate in the membrane center. The thermal conductivity of polysilicon is lower than that of crystalline silicon but much higher than the thermal conductivity of the dielectric layers, so that the heat conduction across the heated area is increased. Such an additional plate constitutes a heat spreader that can be realized without the use of an electrochemical etch stop technique.
The buckling of the microhotplate can generate severe problems in the adhesion of the sensitive layer. In a temperature-pulsed operation mode, the repeated bending of the membrane could cause a reliability problem . A novel microhotplate design was proposed to overcome the CMOS operating temperature limit and to avoid polysilicon-induced drift problems. A cross-sectional schematic of the device is shown in Fig. 11. Instead of using a polysilicon resistor as temperature sensor, a platinum temperature sensor is patterned on the microhotplate.
5 µm was used which is close to the averaged membrane thickness. Since dmod represents a geometrical model simpliﬁcation and is not the physical thickness of the membrane, its value can be chosen in a certain range. This value determines the minimum mesh size and, therefore, the total number of elements created by the meshing tool. The chosen value of dmod allows for computing a solution at reasonable computational eﬀorts. The heat is generated in the resistive microhotplate heater. The power density was calculated for the total volume of the heater.