Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by Calverley, Peter M. A

By Calverley, Peter M. A

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60. Laurell CB, Erickson S. The electrophoretic alpha-1 globulin pattern of serum alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1963;15:132–40. 61. Ciba Guest Symposium Report: terminology, definitions and classifications of chronic pulmonary emphysema and related conditions. Thorax 1959;14:286–99. 62. Snider GL, Kleinerman JL, Thurlbeck WM, Bengally ZH. Definition of emphysema. Report of a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Division of Lung Diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;132:182–5.

47,48 Reduced FEV1 is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in established COPD. 53 Other predictors of survival in established COPD include smoking, low body weight for height, chronic mucus hypersecretion, signs of ischemic heart disease and male gender. Low body weight, expressed as low body mass index (BMI), is an indicator of malnutrition and probably systemic disease in patients with COPD causing weakness of respiratory muscles, impaired immune response and gas exchange. 55 Possibilities of early detection of COPD In population studies and in studies of patients with COPD a reduced FEV1 is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality from COPD.

Shapiro S. End stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the cigarette is burned out but the inflammation rages on. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:339–40. 46. Chanez P, Vignola AM, O’Shaugnessy M, et al. Corticosteroid reversibility in COPD is related to features of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:1529–34. 47. Pizzichini E, Pizzichini MMM, Gibson P, et al. Sputum eosinophilia predicts benefit from prednisone in smokers with chronic obstructive bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1511–17.

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