Brewing by Michael Lewis; Tom W Young

By Michael Lewis; Tom W Young

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The net reaction velocity therefore has a maximum at quite a low temperature (dashed line). The pH response of reaction velocity usually approximates a bell-shaped curve. This reflects the influence of pH on the ionization states of amino acid side chains in the enzyme protein molecule. Optimal enzyme activity is a function of the charged state of the protein. sperm is an example of stored energy. Carbohydrates also serve as structural components of cells. Examples of structural carbohydrates include the hemi-celluloses of husk and cell walls of barley.

Most enzymes, however, work best at moderate temperatures; above this range, thermal inactivation arises due to denaturation or loss of protein structure. Some enzymes are more sensitive to heat than others: for example, /3-amylase is less heat-stable than a-amylase and, in brewers' mashes, which are generally conducted at relatively high temperature, /3-amylase is always more at risk than a-amylase (Chapter 13). Brewers mash at high temperature to achieve complete conversion of starch in a short time and there is profligate enzyme denaturation under these conditions and so, as the mash progresses, conversion proceeds more slowly.

In such tables, of which five lines are reproduced here as examples, the term enthalpy or heat content is used (Table 3-1). Enthalpy is the total heat content, and is the sensible heat (specific heat at ODe multiplied by temperature) plus the added latent heat (LV>. De x (l00 - O)De + 2260 kJ/kg = 2680 kJ/kg (shown more precisely as 2676 kJ /kg in the table below). ) If water is converted to steam and then further heated, it is called "superheated" steam, and commonly used in breweries. These ideas can be expressed in a graphical form (Figure 3-2), which relates heat content (enthalpy), pressure, and temperature.

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