By Julian Sutton (auth.)
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Extra resources for Biology
The melen e form was more common In sooty. Indu8tll I eitles; In the countlyslde. typieal moths were more common. Could thls be the re ult of n urel aelectJon? Are melanle torms better camouflaged on sooty trees, whlle typIC81 forms are hard to spot on liehencoyered branches? Ir so. predatJon by blrds cou d be what dr1ves natural selectlon In thls • SeYerellines of evldence support thls ldea. • Old moth collectlons are praserved In museums. There are no records of melanle fonna before 1850, Pollution In cltJes became more aerloua around that time.
The prosoma is a sort of head without antennae, and is very different from other arthropod heads. They have simple eyes only. The crustaceans (dass or superdass Crustacea) are mainly aquatic. The head is more or less distinct, with two pairs of antennae. Several body segments each have a pair of appendages, many of which are leg-like. They indude shrimps, lobsters, crabs, barnades and, on land, woodlice. Class Chilopoda indudes the centipedes while dass Diplopoda indudes the millipedes. Both are terrestrial, with distinct heads and one pair of antennae.
So, genes whieh inerease fitness become more common. This is natural seleetion. Fig. 1 shows a theoretieal model of the different ways seleetion ean aet on a partieular eharaeteristic. Natural selection and adaptation The direetion that natural seleetion takes depends on what variation is available, and on the environment. Natural seleetion ean only ehange taillength in a monkey population if there is so me variation. If every monkey has the same length tail, there will be no natural seleetion until some new genetie variation appears.