Biological Materials of Marine Origin: Vertebrates by Hermann Ehrlich

By Hermann Ehrlich

This is the second one monograph by means of the writer on organic fabrics of marine beginning. The preliminary booklet is devoted to the organic fabrics of marine invertebrates. This paintings is a resource of contemporary wisdom on biomineralization, biomimetics and fabrics technology with admire to marine vertebrates. For the 1st time in clinical literature the writer supplies the main coherent research of the character, beginning and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers remoted from and saw within the extensive number of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and inside of their exact hierarchically geared up structural formations. there's a wealth of recent and newly synthesized info, together with dozens of formerly unpublished photographs of certain marine creatures together with extinct, extant and residing taxa and their biocomposite-based buildings from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph studies the main suitable advances within the marine organic fabrics study box, mentioning a number of ways being brought and explored by way of particular smooth laboratories.

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The majority of marine species are predominantly carnivorous. However, for example, the green sea turtle changes to a vegetarian diet at the end of the juvenile stage. Some marine turtles are omnivorous. The hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), an endangered marine turtle distributed in the coral reef regions in Caribbean, feeds almost exclusively on sponges, even though they contain a huge mass of very sharp siliceous spicules (Meylan 1988). Since marine invertebrates and plants are generally similar in salt content and contain three times as much salt/kg body water as sea turtles (Holmes and McBean 1964), the salt burden for feeding turtles can be considerable.

The Elpistostegelia (also known as the Panderichthyida) possess an enlarged and flattened head made rigid by the loss of the intracranial joint, infolded (labyrinthodont) teeth, an elongated humerus, and expanded ribs, and no anal and dorsal fins. The genera like Elpistostege, Livonia, Panderichthys, and Tiktaalik are typical representatives of this group (see for review Shubin et al. 2006). Sargopterygii possess hierarchically constructed and nanostructured cosmoid scales (Zylberberg et al. 2010), which are found in several ancient lobe-finned species.

Order Procellariiformes (Tube-Nosed Birds) The tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes) possess hooked bill as well as long, tubular nostrils, which help smell food up to 30 km away (Warham 1990). The most of these birds spend the vast majority of their lives on the ocean, only setting foot on land in order to mate. Birds in the order Procellariiformes includes following representatives: diving-petrels (4 species), albatrosses (13 species), shearwaters and petrels (66 species), and storm-petrels (21 species).

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