By Victor Kaptelinin, Mary Czerwinski
The computer's metaphorical machine, with its onscreen home windows and hierarchy of folders, is the single electronic paintings surroundings such a lot clients and architects have ever recognized. but empirical reports exhibit that the normal machine layout doesn't supply adequate help for trendy real-life initiatives concerning collaboration, multitasking, a number of roles, and numerous applied sciences. In past the laptop Metaphor, best researchers and builders think of layout techniques for a post-desktop future.The individuals research the restrictions of the laptop atmosphere - together with the integrated clash among entry and exhibit, the problems in handling a number of projects at the same time, and the necessity to coordinate the a number of applied sciences and data gadgets (laptops, PDAs, documents, URLs, electronic mail) that almost all humans use day-by-day - and suggest novel layout options that paintings towards a extra built-in electronic paintings setting. They describe platforms that facilitate entry to details, together with Lifestreams, Haystack, activity Gallery, GroupBar, and Scalable textile, and so they argue that the association of labor environments should still mirror the social context of labor. they give thought to the suggestion of job as a conceptual instrument for designing built-in platforms, and element to the Kimura and Activity-Based Computing platforms as examples.Beyond the laptop Metaphor is the 1st systematic assessment of cutting-edge examine on built-in electronic paintings environments. It offers a glimpse of what the following iteration of data applied sciences for daily use could appear like - and it may encourage layout ideas for clients' real-world wishes.
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Extra info for Beyond the desktop metaphor: designing integrated digital work environments
Alternative Interfaces As we’ve mentioned in passing, one of the goals of the Lifestreams model was to scale to the capabilities of devices other than desktop computers. In contrast, how do you work with the desktop metaphor from a cell phone? Further, we wanted to provide a universal data structure over which many types of interface could be explored. In addition to the text-based and PDA implementations, we also did a fair amount of exploration of other interfaces in implementation and on paper.
Whittaker and Sidner (1996) quote one user describing his difficulties: “I’m reluctant to archive junk . . I know that the consequence of archiving junk is to make it that much harder to find good stuff. . “ The result: users are left to invent their own schemes or use third-party applications. Neither method is apt to yield satisfactory performance on retrieval tasks. Worse, users often delete old information rather than be forced to deal with the implications of storing it or inventing archiving schemes (Erickson 1991; Barreau and Nardi 1995).
The summary graphs these values over time. Summaries are context sensitive, so while a lifestream may have many summaries available, only the summaries that are relevant to a particular substream are presented to the user as possible operations. In this implementation, the Squish button has actually changed to “Squish stocks” to indicate that a specific summary is available. If multiple summaries are appropriate then the user is presented with a list of choices. Finally, if no summaries are appropriate then the Squish button remains grayed out.