An Introduction to Models of Online Peer-to-Peer Social by George Kesidis, Jean Walrand

By George Kesidis, Jean Walrand

This e-book issues peer-to-peer purposes and mechanisms working on the net, quite those who should not absolutely automatic and contain major human interplay. So, the world of curiosity is the intersection of allotted structures and on-line social networking. in most cases, uncomplicated types are defined to explain the information. starting with brief overviews of caching, graph idea and video game idea, we conceal the elemental principles of dependent and unstructured seek. We then describe an easy framework for reputations and for iterated referrals and consensus. This framework is utilized to an issue of sybil identification administration. the basic consequence for iterated Byzantine consensus for a comparatively very important factor can also be given. ultimately, a straight-forward epidemic version is used to explain the propagation of malware online and for BitTorrent-style file-sharing. This brief e-book can be utilized as a initial orientation to this material. References are given for the pupil to papers with sturdy survey and educational content material and to these with extra complex remedies of particular subject matters. For an teacher, this e-book is acceptable for a one-semester seminar path. on the other hand, it can be the framework for a semester's worthy of lectures the place the trainer might complement each one bankruptcy with extra lectures on similar or extra complex subject material. A uncomplicated heritage is needed within the parts of laptop networking, chance concept, stochastic methods, and queueing. desk of Contents: Networking evaluation / Graphs / video games / seek in based networks / seek in unstructured networks / Transactions, reputations, and referrals / fake Referrals / Peer-to-peer dossier sharing / Consensus in dynamical trust structures / Byzantine consensus / Epidemics

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The demands of each player i are yi := (Ui )−1 (M) as above. 1: Two interfering flows. Note that bidirectional links are not considered above due to self-interference at the transmitters/receivers. Typically, each-way communication of a bidirectional link will be separated by TDMA, FDMA, or CDMA/spread-spectrum means. , [114, 132]. 2) holds. 2. SYMMETRIC ALTRUISM 33 where pe is bit error probability. , when using DBPSK or GFSK modulation [126]), then we can approximate (SINR) ≈ exp(−n exp(−SINR)).

The closest peer-occupied key to the query’s targeted key, is found or the TTL of the query expires. Again, a peer is expected to be able to “resolve" all keys q for which it is the root. For example, if the query objective is for a data object with key q, then its root peer should either possess the data object or know the identity of another peer (or server) that does. A load-balancing goal of hashing h is that the resulting “peer-occupied" keys are uniformly distributed in the key space. 1This identity may be further resolved to an IP address of the Internet underlay.

R = cn for some constant c, then this cost is O(n2 ). In [105], an alternative to the centralized registry system of Tor is described. A DHT system is proposed to better scale and protect the identity of the relaying peers, even in the presence of churn (arrivals and departures of relays). 1. , the (relay) root of k. To authenticate a putative root for k [149], a querying peer would, by local flooding, request corroboration by all peers that reside in a neighborhood of k in key space. Neighborhood consensus could be required before a peer is accepted as the root.

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