By Pierre Samuel

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T. Brown [1971] gave a survey on constructing strongly nonrepetitive sequences. Entringer, Jackson, and Schatz [1974] proved that every inﬁnite word over a 2-letter alphabet contains arbitrarily long abelian squares. Ker¨anen [1992] solved Erd˝os’s problem by exhibiting a strongly nonrepetitive sequence over a 4-letter alphabet. Carpi [1998] showed that there are uncountably many abelian squarefree words over a 4-letter alphabet, and that the number of abelian squarefree words of each length grows exponentially.

Mignosi and Pirillo [1992] proved√that the critical exponent for the Fibonacci . 618. For other results on critical 2 exponents, see Klepinin and Sukhanov [1999], Vandeth [2000], and Damanik and Lenz [2002]. Erd˝os [1961, p. 240] ﬁrst raised the problem of the existence of inﬁnite abelian squarefree words. ) Evdokimov [1968] constructed such a sequence on 25 symbols. Pleasants [1970] improved this to 5 symbols. T. Brown [1971] gave a survey on constructing strongly nonrepetitive sequences. Entringer, Jackson, and Schatz [1974] proved that every inﬁnite word over a 2-letter alphabet contains arbitrarily long abelian squares.

1 The critical exponent of the Thue–Morse word t is 2. Proof. The word t begins 011 · · · and hence contains a square. If t contained a (2 + )-power for any > 0, then it would contain an overlap. 1. There also exist various generalizations of squarefreeness. We say a word is an abelian square if it is of the form w w where w is a permutation of w. A word is abelian squarefree if it contains no abelian squares. 11) for more information. Another generalization is to study more general pattern avoidance problems.