By David G. Williamson
This new version has been reformatted and entirely revised to envision diplomacy among 1878 and 1941. The content material specializes in the next areas:
- becoming foreign tensions among the good Powers 1878-1914
- the 1st global War
- Peace settlements and the impression of the nice melancholy within the inter-war period
- The countdown to and motives of the second one global War
Throughout the booklet, key dates, phrases and matters are highlighted, and old interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and figuring out of the interval, and exam-style questions and information written by way of examiners give you the chance to boost examination talents.
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Extra resources for Access to History. War and Peace: International Relations 1878-1941
While concentrating mainly on defusing the Bulgarian crisis, Bismarck was also able successfully to isolate France in western Europe. The Triple Alliance (see page 19) was renewed in February 1887 and an Italian–Spanish Agreement was signed aimed at preventing French colonial expansion in North Africa. By May 1887 France, as the historian William Langer observed, was ‘completely hedged about’. The aftermath of the Bulgarian crisis The Reinsurance Treaty did not immediately calm the tension in the Balkans.
The war impoverished Germany, bled France white, and shattered the Austrian and Turkish empires. It also led to the triumph of Bolshevism in Russia and Fascism in Italy. By inﬂicting serious and long-term damage on the European economies, it also ultimately led to Hitler coming to power in 1933 in Germany. Understandably, then, the causes of the First World War constitute one of the most hotly debated issues in modern history. They and the events leading up to the outbreak of the First World War are examined under the following headings: • The ‘New Course’ in German foreign policy and its consequences • Nationalism and worldwide imperial rivalries • The making of the Triple Entente • The Second Moroccan crisis, 1911, and its consequences • The Balkans and the Great Powers 1906–1914 • The outbreak of the First World War 1914 The Origins of the First World War | 31 Key dates 1890 Bismarck’s dismissal Reinsurance Treaty lapsed 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance signed 1897 German naval construction started 1898 Fashoda crisis 1902 Anglo-Japanese Treaty 1904 Anglo-French Entente 1904–5 Russo-Japanese War 1906 First Moroccan crisis Anglo-French staff talks 1907 Anglo-Russian Agreement 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina annexed by Austria 1911 Second Moroccan crisis 1912–13 First and Second Balkan Wars 1914 June 28 Sarajevo incident July 28 Austria declared war on Serbia July 30 Full Russian mobilisation ordered August 1 Germany declared war on Russia August 3 Germany declared war on France August 4 German troops invaded Belgium Britain declared war on Germany 1 | The ‘New Course’ in German Foreign Policy and its Consequences Key question Key dates What were the reasons for the nonrenewal of the Reinsurance Treaty?
On the other hand, he was not prepared to stand back and see Austria defeated by Russia. To reconcile these two often conﬂicting objectives he pursued his traditional policy of strengthening Austria while at the same time attempting to reassure Russia of Germany’s peaceful intentions. Bismarck aimed to deter Russian expansion into the Balkans by encouraging Britain, Italy and Austria-Hungary to negotiate the First Mediterranean Agreement in February 1887. This provided for the maintenance of the status quo in the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic and Aegean seas.