A Short Course on Banach Space Theory by N. L. Carothers

By N. L. Carothers

This brief direction on classical Banach area conception is a traditional follow-up to a primary path on practical research. the themes coated have confirmed invaluable in lots of modern study arenas, akin to harmonic research, the idea of frames and wavelets, sign processing, economics, and physics. The e-book is meant to be used in a complicated themes path or seminar, or for self sufficient examine. It bargains a extra uncomplicated creation than are available within the present literature and contains references to expository articles and proposals for additional examining.

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Claim: The linear span of h0; : : :; h2k+1 1 is the set of all step functions based on the intervals in Ak . That is, spanf h0; : : :; h2k+1 1 g = spanf I : I 2 Ak g: Why? Well, clearly each hj 2 spanf I : I 2 Ak g for j < 2k+1 , and spanf I : I 2 Ak g has dimension 2k+1. Thus the two spaces must coincide. But it should be pointed out here that it's essential that we take 2k+1 functions at a time! The claim won't be true if we consider an arbitrary batch h0; : : : ; hm. 34 CHAPTER 3. BASES IN BANACH SPACES This allows us to use the much simpler functions I in place of the Haar functions in certain arguments.

Show that there is a closed subspace N of X with X = M N . 16. Let M and N be closed subspaces of a normed space X , each having the same nite codimension. Show that M and N are isomorphic. 17. Let P : X ! X be a continuous linear projection with range Y , and let Q : X ! X be continuous and linear. If Q satis es PQ = Q and QP = P , show that Q is also a projection with range Y . 18. A bounded linear map U : X ! X is called an involution if U 2 = I . If U is an involution, show that P = 21 (U + I ) is a projection.

12. Let M = f(x; 0) : x 2 Rg R2. Show that there are uncountably many subspaces N of R2 such that R2 = M N . 13. Let M be a nite dimensional subspace of a normed linear space X . Show that there is a closed subspace N of X with X = M N . In fact, if M is non-trivial, then there are in nitely many distinct choices for N . ] 14. Let M and N be closed subspaces of a Banach space X with M \ N = f0g. Prove that M + N is closed in X if and only if there is a constant C < 1 such that kxk C kx + yk for every x 2 M , y 2 N .

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