By Donald Ringe
This ebook is the 1st considering the fact that 1897 to explain the earliest reconstructable levels of the prehistory of English. It outlines the grammar of Proto-Indo-European, considers the adjustments through which one dialect of that prehistoric language constructed into Proto-Germanic, and gives a close account of the grammar of Proto-Germanic. the 1st quantity in Don Ringe's A Linguistic historical past of English might be of relevant curiosity to all students and scholars of comparative Indo-European and Germanic linguistics, the heritage of English, and old linguists. the following quantity will reflect on the improvement of Proto-Germanic into previous English. next volumes will describe the attested heritage of English from the outdated English interval to the current.
Read Online or Download A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English) PDF
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Additional resources for A History of English: Volume I: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English)
Sg. 4 (iv) ) or are obviously analogical on those that did, but most stems in *-h2, which seem regularly to have been feminine, lacked an overt nom. sg. ending for reasons that are unclear. The zero-endings of the neut. pl. direct cases likewise arose by Szemere´nyi’s Law (which apparently aVected all fricatives, thus *-h2 as well as *-s). On the other hand, the voc. sg. and the neut. sg. direct cases were underlyingly endingless. The loc. sg. was rather diVerent. It seems to have been characterized by an ending which had an underlying accent but no segmental portion to ‘carry’ it, with the result that the accent had to be linked leftward to the last syllable of the stem.
E. thematic vowel plus the zero grade of the athematic ending)—but we can’t be certain that that isn’t really the unaccented athematic ending *-os, because thematic and athematic stems converged phonologically in Hittite to the point where such a transfer of endings was clearly possible. The Tocharian ending is of obscure origin; Italo-Celtic exhibits an ending *-ı¯, which appears to be an unanalyzable derivational morpheme (cf. Nussbaum 1975), though Old Latin also exhibits *-osyo, and there are other Continental Celtic endings as well; and the Central daughters seem to have generalized *-osyo, which I have therefore entered in the table of endings above.
G. Hitt. daga¯n ‘on the ground’, Toch. A tkam ‘earth’). ˙ What happened to the reduplicated present stem *te´-tek´ -ti ‘(s)he produces’ (root *tek´ -) is especially instructive. , underlyingly */te´-tk´ -nti/, surfaced as *te´k´ tsnti. Most of the daughters extracted *tek´ ts- and treated it as ˚ the underlying root. Latin simply added the thematic vowel (*te´k´ ts-e-ti > texit ‘(s)he weaves’). 4 (i) ); hence 3pl. 20 Proto-Indo-European *te´k´ tsnti > Skt ta´ksati but 3sg. *te¯´k´ ts-ti > ta´¯ sti ‘(s)he fashions’.