By Joseph Gerard Brennan

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**Extra resources for A handbook of logic**

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I and 0 are subcontraries. Some Papuans wear nose bones. Some Papuans do not wear nose bones. SUBALTERN AND SUPERALTERN A subaltern is the particular counterpart of a general proposition. I is the subaltern of A, and 0 is the subaltern of E. Inferences from Simple Propositions 41 Some babies resemble chimpanzees. All babies resemble chimpanzees. is the subaltern of Some pobbles do not have toes. No pobbles have toes. is the subaltern of A superaltern is the general or universal counterpart of a particular proposition.

Former Democratic National Committee chairmen are the sole inhabitants of the Gobi desert. 5. Explain, using your own illustrations, what it means to say that particular propositions have existential import while general ones do not. Show by means of Venn diagrams the essential difference between these two types of propositions. 6. Consider the following objections to the doctrine of existential import of particular propositions. Are they refutahIe? Discuss. I. "Particular propositions cannot assert existence.

In E propositions, both subject and predicate classes are excluded from one another in their entirety. Thus the predicate actuaries is distributed, and this holds for the predicates of all E propositions. Inferences from Simple Propositions 35 The predicate terms of particular affirmative (I) propositions are undistributed. The assertion that some ballet dancers are temperamental should not be taken as intending that some ballet dancers are all of those who possess this property. From the information given to us by the proposition, we do not know whether this is so.