By Marian Klamer
Teiwa is a non-Austronesian ('Papuan') language spoken at the island of Pantar, in japanese Indonesia, positioned simply north of Timor island. It has approx. 4,000 audio system and is very endangered. whereas the non-Austronesian languages of the Alor-Pantar archipelago are sincerely on the topic of one another, as indicated through the various obvious cognates and the very comparable pronominal paradigms stumbled on around the crew, their genetic dating to different Papuan languages is still arguable. situated a few 1,000 km from their putative Papuan buddies at the New Guinea mainland, the Alor-Pantar languages are the main far away westerly Papuan outliers. A grammar of Teiwa offers a grammatical description of 1 of those 'outlier' languages. The booklet is dependent as a reference grammar: after a basic advent at the language, it audio system and the linguistic state of affairs on Alor and Pantar, the grammar builds up from an outline of the language's phonology and observe periods to its greater grammatical parts and their mutual family: nominal words, serial verb structures, clauses, clause mixtures, and data constitution. whereas many Papuan languages are morphologically advanced, Teiwa is sort of analytic: it has just one paradigm of item marking prefixes, and one verbal suffix marking realis prestige. different typologically fascinating positive factors of the language contain: (i) the presence of uvular fricatives and forestalls, that is bizarre for languages of jap Indonesia; (ii) the absence of trivalent verbs: transitive verbs choose a unmarried (animate or inanimate) item, whereas the extra player is expressed with a separate predicate; and (iii) the absence of morpho-syntactically encoded embedded clauses. A grammar of Teiwa relies on fundamental box info, gathered by way of the writer in 2003-2007. a variety of glossed and translated Teiwa texts of assorted style
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Teiwa
Portuguese and other merchants, sailing from the Moluccas and Makassar in 14 1. Introduction the north to the islands of Timor and Sumba in the south to buy wax, sandalwood, and slaves used to pass the islands between Lembata and Pantar,21 that is, west of Pantar. Another route they followed was east of Alor. As Pantar and Alor are geographically located between Larantuka and Dili, two settlements established by the Portuguese in the 16th century, it is no surprise to find some Portuguese missionary activities in Alor beginning in 1561.
The first Indian textiles must have reached Pantar between the 12th century, when it started to be produced in Gujarat, and the 14th century (Rodemeier 2006:69). Majapahit is traditionally siad to have fallen in 1478 (Cribb 2000: 87). Around 1460, Islam arrived in the North-West Moluccan islands Tidore and Ternate (Cribb 2000:44), and the subsequent islamisation of the empires of Tidore and Ternate was also to include the 72 islands that were ruled by them — among which probably Pantar and Alor.
Moreover, within historic times, there have also been numerous migrations going on between the various islands of eastern Indonesia. As one illustration of this latter point, consider the Papuan languages in the eastern part of East Timor: Makasai, Oirata, and Fataluku. There is clear evidence that these languages post-date the arrival of the Austronesians, and were probably the result of a back-migration from the Bomberai peninsula. One type of evidence is archaeological, and comes from rock art motives found in various archaeological sites in East Timor.