A Grammar of Madurese by William D. Davies

By William D. Davies

Madurese is an incredible neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, often at the island of Madura and adjoining elements of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there's no latest accomplished descriptive grammar of the language, with latest reviews being both sketches of the entire grammar, or distinct descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific themes inside of those elements of the grammar. there isn't any competing paintings that gives the breadth and intensity of insurance of this grammar, specifically (though no longer solely) in regards to syntax.

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Bɤtɔh] ‘rock’, [kuruh] ‘teacher’, [apah] Syllable structure and phonotactic constraints 27 ‘what’, and so on, particularly when occurring before a significant pause. This is, however, unrelated to Indonesian words with a final /h/. Pawitra (2009) includes many examples in his dictionary. As touched on in section 2, schwa can occur only in closed syllables, and this includes the higher counterpart [ɨ]; as shown in section 4, the restriction of [] and [ɨ] to closed syllables can induce gemination.

Stevens (1994) attributes this optionality to the fact that the form aki can be more closely bound to the root as a suffix, resulting in [abɤlɤɤki] (in this case), or more loosely bound, almost as an independent word, resulting in [abɤlɤaki]. Phonological processes 41 Note that in the form [ablaki] ‘tell about’, [] is inserted not between two identical surface vowels but between two vowels of one of the alternating pairs, [ɤ] and [a]. This provides additional evidence that in underlying representation the paired vowels are identical.

In [ɛki] ‘tall’, the non-high [ɛ] follows the voiceless unaspirated stop [], but the high vowel [i] follows the voiceless aspirated stop. This is also illustrated by [tittɛl] ‘shake’, in which [i] follows the voiceless aspirated dental stop and [ɛ] follows the voiceless unaspirated dental stop. The rest of the data conform to this regularity. The pattern is illustrated for the other three pairs in (22-24). (22) ɔ ~ u  ɔ p pɔkɔl ‘hit’  tɔḍus ‘embarrassed’ ṭ ṭɔ ‘only’ c cɔɔ ‘look for’ k kɔcɛ’cat’ m mɔsɛm ‘season’ n nɔna ‘young girl’ ɲ ɲɔɲɔr inflammable’   ɔḍɤ ‘young’ l lɔnca ‘jump’ r rɔma ‘house’ s sɔrat ‘letter’ #___ ɔpi ‘screwdriver’ (23) a ~   a p pacɔl ‘hoe’ t ana ‘hand’ ṭ ṭarat ‘scream’ c canḍi ‘temple’ k kapɤr ‘news’ m mand.

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