By Fischer, W.
Translated from the German through Jonathan Rogers
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Additional info for A Grammar of Classical Arabic
31 One diacritic is used in normalized OCS over or next to the three letters "n 1 r", to stand for the palatal sonorants nj, Ij, rj: thus n f r'or H A p. This usage is borrowed from the cyrillic Suprasliensis and the glagolitic Zographensis, where the presence of these palatals is usually (if not fully consistently) noted. In Supr, for instance, the theoretical forms *jeleni '2 deer [nom. dual]' and *jelenji 'deer's [poss. adj. loc. ]' are spelled 6A6HH ~ 6A6HH. The nomiuative singular (masculine) forms, which do not Meticulous collections were assembled by scholars before the concept of the phoneme was explicit, but they interpreted the letters as scientific phonetic symbols, carefully chosen by trained linguists; the careful statistics concerning letter combinations have little to do with phonemic disdncdons.
Yet "errors" also occur: thus s t t t n i k s 'centurion' appears as sbttniki as well as sotbnikt. Sav consistendy omits the strong jer in AHH 'day' and BCb 'all (NA masc. )'. All in all, the use of the jer-letters demonstrates only that scribes felt that these symbols were part of correct spelling. 6241 The phonological calculation of strong jers originally started with the end of a word: tbmbns but tbmtna. Examples of the type *tmen temna demonstrate the expected development of vowel versus zero in different morphological forms of a single stem.
623 word not followed by an enclitic). A jer is strong only in a syllable directly before a syllable with a weak jer. For example, with weak jers in italics and strong jers in bold-face: dbnt 'day', d6ne (gen. ), tbrntna 'dark (nom. sg. masc)', tbmbno (nom. sg. ), s t u s 'sleep', ssntna 'of sleep (adj. nom. sg. )', stubna (nom. sg. ), *mojb (written moi), *ljudfaj6 (written ljudbi); v b tbme 'in the dark', rab* t s 'that slave', si> m5noJQ 'with me' (cf. ) In the groups spelled consonant + lor r + consonant, the jer, in the great majority of cases, is neither strong nor weak, but neutral.