09.Circuits and Systems for Video Technology by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Extra resources for 09.Circuits and Systems for Video Technology

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Vector – 1 Vector – 2 Find the best match Vector – K Codebook Original image Best match Codebook Index Table lookup Reproduced image Figure 6. Block diagram of vector quantization. Vector Quantization In predictive coding, described in the previous section, each pixel was quantized separately using a scalar quantizer. The concept of scalar quantization can be generalized to vector quantization (5) in which a group of pixels are quantized at the same time by representing them as a code vector. Such a vector quantization can be applied to a vector of prediction errors, original pels, or transform coefficients.

Almost all computer 507 Time Line no. 1 3 5 7 9 Line no. 2 4 6 8 10 Even field Odd field Interlaced scanning Figure 1. A television frame is divided into an odd field (containing odd-numbered scan lines) and an even field (containing even-numbered scan lines). displays, especially all high-end computers, are sequentially scanned. In interlaced scanning (see Fig. 1), all the odd-numbered lines in the entire frame are scanned first during the first half of the frame period, T, and then the even-numbered lines are scanned during the second half.

The first step in processing, storage, or communication is usually to digitize the signals. Analog-to-digital converters with required accuracy and speed for video signals have become inexpensive in recent years. The cost and quality of digitization therefore is less of an issue. However, digitization with good quality results in a bandwidth expansion, in the sense that transmitting or storage of these bits often takes up more bandwidth or storage space than the original analog signal. In spite of this, digitization is becoming universal because of the relative ease of handling the digital signal compared to analog.

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